Ultrasonic testing is a non destructive testing method based on the ability to use propagation of ultrasonic waves in order to detect defects inside tested object but also to characterize materials and measure their thickness, while keeping the inspected object intact. This method can be used to test many materials including steel, wood, concrete and composites.
When the reflection method (or pulse-echo mode) is used, the ultrasonic transducer will both send and receive the ultrasonic waves. Distance (or material thickness) is measured as a function of the arrival time of the reflection, while its amplitude and intensity represents flaws and changes in the material. In attenuation method (or through-transmission mode) the ultrasonic waves will be sent through the tested object from a transmitter to a receiver.
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In the past, the ability to pull out an entire portable X-Ray system from a small bag was considered a fantasy, but today due to developments in technology this dream has finally become a reality. A few years ago a standard portable X-Ray system weighed over 40kg, today our lightest system weighs less than 6kg without compromising on the system’s penetration capability and resolution. These latest technology developments along with the changes in terror doctrine have created a new need for light and compact portable X-Ray systems.
The rise of ISIS in 2013 turned terror into a global threat. The nature of the terror acts became more complex. Until recently, the threat of one bomb in a crowded street or a car bomb was the main concern, but today terror cells carry out combined attacks involving multiple locations, while using several methods. On Milipol eve 2015, a group of terrorists simultaneously executed several attacks throughout Paris forcing the bomb squad to respond immediately to multiple calls at once. As a result, security forces have been required to change their operational model, become more mobile and faster to foil such threats.
This new reality changed the bomb technician requirement of the portable X-Ray system. Innovative technologies have allowed us to adapt to these new needs by reducing the size and weight of the portable X-Ray systems. In the past, the sensor, referred to as the panel, which is responsible for generating the X-Ray image, required a supporting environment of several devices. Our current panels are autonomous with strong battery and wireless capability. These new caricatures have affected the entire system by enabling us to reduce the size of a standard 40kg system and offer new compact 10kg systems packed in a backpack.
The Alpha panel superiority over the FlashX panel is evident in every parameter mentioned. Even though these two panels share the same effective imaging area, the Alpha offers a better working environment for the bomb technician in the field. The panel is not the only means to improve mobility. There are other options, such as a smaller mobile source of radiation and a touchscreen tablet with suitable software to work in harsh environments.
The weight summation of a 2.8kg panel, 1.4kg tablet, 2.2kg X-Ray source and the 0.5kg communication device totals less than 7kg for a large panel system. The weight of a system with the smallest panel can get down to less than 5.7kg. This incredible improvement in size and weight along with the autonomous capabilities of the new systems has resulted in new possibilities and work methods for the bomb technician using our systems.
This new generation of compact, smart and lightweight systems is being used for a variety of security applications. The lite backpack has improved the operator’s performance in the field in many aspects, but most importantly in saving lives. What follows are several examples of precisely how the lite backpack is improving the workflow of the user in the field.
Police bomb disposal units must be mobile and agile as a result of recent changes in terror activities. The contemporary trend involves equipping the units with both previous generation systems (in a case) and new generation systems (in small backpacks) to improve their response speed. Consider the terror attack at the Boston Marathon, where there was a high probability of another bomb striking the survivors and the rescuers. In a situation where a bomb has exploded in a public area, the bomb disposal expert can quickly screen suspicious objects and neutralise any additional bombs, to allow safe evacuation of the wounded from the scene.
Army bomb disposal forces mainly deal with roadside charges and booby traps situated in hostile environments. The ability to carry an X-Ray system in a backpack and provide support to the forces conducting a search offers a significant advantage that contributes to the confidence and survival of the military forces. For example, if the detection forces carry a light and easy-to-use X-Ray system during their incursion on foot into a village in Afghanistan, their operational ability will improve. When the force arrives in the village – which is one of the most dangerous and complicated combat fields for military infantry troops – and suspect a roadside charge, the ability to speedily foil the threat by utilising this system to inspect the object will help neutralise dangers much more efficiency.
Bomb disposal experts in marine environments require unique mobility between sea and land or when moving between vessels. They must be able to navigate tight spaces and narrow corridors. Navy bomb disposal experts are required to raid suspicious ships, which they must screen to detect weapons and explosives. Hence, a lightweight system solution assists them in inspecting such places, quickly and safely.
The inspection systems used by special units are mainly for disarming explosive charges in order to enter buildings quickly. Time is vital for these units. The new systems offer optimal mobility with minimal weight and size, leading to high demand and significantly increased use. For example, in a hijack where the kidnappers use multiple explosive charges to improve their negotiation ability, thereby deterring the S.W.A.T team from breaking into the building, a system that is carried on the back can quickly neutralise potential threats and decrease the time required to break into the building and rescue the hostages. In a hostage situation, every second is critical for saving lives and this inspection system can provide a quicker response than ever before.
We have created a unique solution consisting of a lightweight, mobile, quick and easy-to-use system. Our One Platform technology allows the operator to enjoy the current abilities on a customised lightweight system. When choosing and purchasing a new system, it is important to select an appropriate sensor (panel). Selection of the sensor derives from the size of the inspected object. When you select a panel with a large screening area, such as Alpha panel with a 43x35cm screening area, the carrier bag is bigger than the compact bag that’s designed for the SparX (size: 32x25cm). The size of the panel has almost no effect on the weight of the bag; it only influences the bag’s size. Since the difference in weight is negligible, Our main advantage is in the way it operates as an autonomous unit that includes a battery with a nine-hour lifespan and built-in charger. The new smart panel offers a significant reduction to the amount of accompanying equipment, which allows the system to be packed away in a small and easy-to-carry backpack.
Choosing a suitable X-Ray source relates to the type of objects that are usually inspected. A very large selection of X-Ray sources is available on the market and it is crucial to verify the chosen source is suitable for the field conditions (such as resistance to specific weather conditions). We recommend Golden Engineering’s portable battery based X-Ray sources for fieldwork, its systems are fully compatible with most other X-Ray sources in the market. Golden Engineering offers a unique, relatively small, X-Ray source in the shape of the XR150 (with 150kV X-Ray voltage), which fits in a small bag. This can penetrate up to 50mm steel. If the operator usually inspects steel or iron objects, they may consider choosing a larger source, the XRS3 (270kV) with an 80mm penetration ability, which can fit in a small bag, but takes up more room due to its larger size.
The best choice of display is a tablet, which fits easily into a bag and is held in the palm. The tablet should be hardened, so it is suitable for fieldwork, and the screen should work well in direct sunlight. It should also respond to touch with gloved fingers so that the bomb-disposal expert is not required to remove them when acquiring and interpreting an image. We offer the GETAC F110 with an 11.6in screen, which is the ideal size for analysing an X-Ray image in the field. The tablet comes with a convenient handle, has no rivals for operation in direct sunlight and can be used with gloves.
The operator also needs to choose the communication means according to the combat doctrine. For example, when using a disruptor while handling an object, there is no point wasting space and weight on the wireless system; instead a cable can be fitted into a bag. The opposite is also true: when using a wireless system there is no need to add a cable as it adds extra weight. The Combox integrates the two communication means (wired and wireless) in one device, enabling the operator to switch between these communications means without changing modules.
Moreover, if the reception range is critical, we provide a variety of solutions ranging from several tens of meters (weighing some tens of grams) up to a powerful solution that still comfortably fits into a small bag for one-mile reception.
The bag must be able to protect the equipment from knocks and drops. This valuable system cannot be used without suitable protection. We have a large variety of bags to suit all needs and configurations, from 10kg equipment bags to full equipment weighing 30kg. Furthermore, if the operator already uses specific bags, We can customise them for the requested system configuration, thereby maintaining the purchasing uniformity of that particular unit.
The mobile system relies on software that is responsible for synchronised activation of the system’s components and image processing. Our VEO software provides the optimal solution for the field work scenario. It is user-friendly, offers an intuitive workflow and is the recipient of rave reviews. The software provides graphic touch features fit for working with gloves. The white screen background is suitable for work in the sun and includes unique tools for interpretation of the image at the touch of a button.
Looking to the future, the CBRN area is viewed as a developing threat and requires new technology to counter it. The ability of a terror organisation to set up a dirty bomb in a crowded place has changed the rules of the game. Naturally, the X-Ray solutions and the lightweight backpack systems in particular will become a necessity for EOD teams to handle suspicious objects; especially when neutralising a dirty bomb by employing a disruptor is not an option. With our systems you can do it today.
The Brooklyn Museum in association with D. Giles Ltd., published in 2013 a catalogue called “Soulful Creatures, Animal Mummies in Ancient Egypt” with essays written by curators and preservers Edward Bleiberg, Yekaterna Barbash and Lisa Bruno and a forward by Arnold L. Lehman. The catalog explores the phenomena of animal mummifying (millions were mummified) and the utilisation of modern research techniques in the effort to preserve as well as research and learn about the rare artefacts. The catalog is corresponding to an exhibition by the same name, which is part of an ongoing program at the Brooklyn Museum to share the less familiar or even unknown treasures of the museum’s Egyptian collection with a wider audience. The exhibit and catalog, both published in 2013, are the results of a project that started with the discovery of 30 forgotten animal mummy boxes in the vaults of the museum in 2009.
The catalog and exhibition represent a cross disciplinary method to understanding and preserving the ancient artefacts. The combination of archaeological expertise and Egyptology knowledge along with scientific preserving methods, as well as consulting with medical scientists and other specialists in order to make the most of modern technologies in the inspection and analysis of the artefacts. New insights have been achieved through chemicals analysis, carbon-14 dating, CT scans and digital X-ray inspections. The exhibition puts the rare artefacts on display to the public but also shares the research methods used to study them.
In her article “The Scientific Examination of Animal Mummies, which is included in the above mentioned catalog, Lisa Bruno writes that mummified animals were discovered on a massive scale of millions. Like in a good CIS television drama, the preserver in the museum sets about to reveal the secrets harboured in the animal remains. The objective of a meticulous scientific examination of the animal mummies is to try and tell their story. The story lies in the little and exact details of each specimen. Scientists are looking for the motivation of animal mummifying are trying to use the evidence collected to build ideas and theories about this mysterious practice.
In contrast to early studies of mummies and ancient artifacts (as early as the first expeditions undertaken by Napoleon Bonaparte) the mummies no longer need to be destroyed in order to be researched. Modern nondestructive technologies are available. X-rays were discovered by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen in 1895 and they were used in a study of artifacts as an imaging tool as early as 1896 (as described in an article by the scientists Carl Georg Walter Koenig). Even portable X-ray is recorded in those early days – in 1896 a British doctor Charles Thurston Holland radiographed a bird mummy on an Egyptian tomb site. In the Brooklyn Museum an X-ray of a dog mummy was taken as early as 1939. Today, with digital radiography and CT scans, the imaging capabilities of the researchers are enhanced tenfold!
In preparation for the exhibition, the Brooklyn Museum conservation laboratory team, led by Kenneth Mozer, were not limited to eye vision only. Lisa Bruno writes that they analysed the animal mummies with tools such as stereomicroscopes, various strengths of electromagnetic radiation, X-rays and Computed tomography (CT). These various imaging tools allowed the researchers to view the rare artefacts in different ways and levels. Imaging tools were also used for analytic methods – such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and gas chromatography (CG). Other techniques such as Carbon 14 dating, archaeological grounding and historical deduction were used to complete the picture. The combination of different scientific resources is important to such a study. No single discipline can provide comprehensive results when investigating these mysterious objects.
Seeing Inside the Mummies
X-ray is a form of electromagnetic light, which moves in a wave pattern that ranges out of the human eye vision capability. X-rays are short light waves and thus they can be very intensive and powerful, penetrating and passing through most materials and blocked only by denser substances such as metal or bone. In the traditional film X-ray image, dark areas demonstrate very little material (black means nothing but air) whereas white areas are seen where a dense material such as bone has blocked out the X-rays. Various levels of grey demonstrate a range of various material densities. Thus a two dimension image is created depicting a 3-dimensional object.
Today the Brooklyn Museum is at the cutting edge of X-ray technology and owns and uses the RayzorX Pro portable digital radiography system for the nondestructive inspection of its mummy collection with X- rays. The image is generated by the X-ray and is immediately and directly recorded as digital data. Lisa Bruno mentions that this instantaneous imaging is an advantage to the conserving researchers, because the results are immediately available for analysis and any manipulation or repeated imaging can be done on the spot, without repeated transport of rare artefacts. The radiation intensities can be adjusted for the materials present in the specimen that is being examined, thus providing clearer and more articulated images.
Examples of X-ray analysis and techniques are various. Controlled exposure levels can help review the mummy and the materials it is made of in various layers, by exposing the relevant scale (and representing a certain material density) in each different image. For example, an image can concentrate on displaying bones, while the linen wrappings of the mummy are “removed” by controlled over-exposure. Under-exposure can help see the less dense linen of the mummy, this time sacrificing the visibility of bone details. Digital radiography also enables researchers to view the image as a positive reading (meaning bones will be black). This helps researchers in the analysis of the results.
X-ray of mummies can reveal surprising evidence. In Figure 2, the Ibis shaped mummy revealed to contain the bones of snakes. The symbolism or ceremonial value of such a “mixed” item is not clearly understood.
An elaborated Ibis mummy which takes the form of a human body with a carefully wooden carved Ibis head is a wonderful demonstration of external precision and exactness, which is seemingly contrasted by its contents – only a few random bones can be seen in the X-ray image (see Figure 3) instead of the expected careful placement of body parts. However, the careful arrangement of the mummy is clear when one looks at the cross section CT scan of the mummy bundle, in which it is made clear that the bundle is stuffed with feathers.
Mummies that do not contain whole animals were traditionally known as “fake” or “false”. With such a spectacular wrapping, the incomplete contents of the Ibis bundle were a surprise to the researchers. The CT scan revealed the meticulous arrangement of the animal, so that it became clear that even though the contents are not a whole animal, this mummy was costly to make and was of the highest standards and could not possibly be faked. It is now believed that such incomplete mummies were created as a result of lack of resources to meet demand. Another motivation may be that such a high budget mummy was used to preserve the remains of a certain animal, perhaps the incomplete reliquaries of saints and other religious figures.
Mummies that contain only one bone of a large animal are considered also to be representations in a more votive or reliquary sense. An X-ray of a bovine bone fragment is clearly seen in a mummy which is shaped as a miniature bull (see Figure 4).
Modern technologies have enabled conservators to establish new understandings and theories about the motivations leading to the making of animal mummies and the methods used to make them. However it is not to be expected that modern tools will provide all the answers to the mysterious and complex mummifying tradition. Some principles seem to apply widely, but there is an abundance of material variety, creativity and a large time span in which the mummies in the Brooklyn Museum's collection have been constructed. Modern tools enable complex technical data to be collected. Its availability will enable a more comprehensive analysis, using various disciplines for its interpolation. Modern science provides highly suggestive practical evidence and a good basis for theory, as well as new and enhanced results for the better understanding of enigmatic historical objects. But the true answer to the purpose of animal mummies in the larger context of ancient Egypt remains part of the puzzle curators, archaeologists and conservators are trying to solve.
We are proud that our X-Ray equipment is being used for such an important project of culture preservation.
From bomb detection through Special Forces to counter surveillance and customs, the security sector is facing ever growing challenges. Throughout the years, radiography has been a common imaging method for inspecting suspicious articles and explosive devices. For a long while, X-ray film was the most common (and practically the only) recording medium. The Digital Age brought about radical changes, and use of Digital Radiography (DR) expanded, while rapidly replacing conventional radiography methods.
Digital Radiography uses X-ray digital detectors instead of traditional film or Phosphor Plates (also known as Computed Radiography or CR). DR yields immediate and superior quality X-ray images at minimum time on target, with minimal radiation levels.
Digital Radiography vs. Film
Much like in a camera, using traditional film in radiography is time consuming and environmentally harmful. Film needs to be chemically developed, and is very limited in terms of image analysis and sharing with others.
Instead of film, DR uses a digital image capture device. Utilizing a wide dynamic range and high resolution, an immediate high quality image is generated. The retrieved image is displayed on a tablet and can be processed, enhanced, shared and digitally stored and accessed, all within a matter of seconds.
These attributes are particularly beneficial for the security industry as they:
Digital Radiography vs. Computed Radiography (CR)
CR makes use of phosphor crystals plates as a recording medium. The X-ray is absorbed and the exposed plate is then scanned with laser. The emitted light captured is converted into a digitized digital image.
Image readout must commence promptly as the amount of energy stored rapidly declines - the recorded image can substantially degrade during processing. Readout process for a single image takes about a minute and requires a dedicated bulky scanner.
With its unique penetration and detection capabilities, DR maximizes speed, safety, quality and overall performance, while making CR pale in comparison:
The Wireless Spark III is a Lightweight Controller which connects the Control Unit to the Downrange components (X-Ray & Detector). The newest and latest model of the Wireless Spark can provide a staggering 400m Line of Sight wireless connection as well as 6 Hours of operation! The Wireless Spark III Connects to all the Golden X-Ray sources using a Picatinny Connection (New Generation Sources) or via Magnets (Old Generation Sources).